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You Are To Answer Question One(1) And Any

Other Three (3) Questions.



Relief; the relief of the mapped area

(kashimbila N.W) can be described as follows

(i)A dissected plateaus is found of the north

central area of the map which extended to the

Central area.

(ii)The eastern , western and southern areas of

the mapped area are mainly lowlands with the

lowest height of 500m above see level


Drainage pattern; this can be described in the

the following ways

(i)the main river is the katsina ala given and

other minor ones that empty their water into it

e;g mku,agbadi,apipo,abagu,kangi, etc . The

direction of flow of river katsina - Ala is from

north-west to south - east on the map .

(ii)the drainage pattern of the mapped area is



Settlement; the settlement pattern of the

mapped area is displeased on scalloped

settlement. That is the building are far from

each other with few social amenities.


The development of given katsina - ala in these

stages there are the youthful and matured and

old age stages.

The youthful stage mark the source of river

katsina - ala at bamenda highlands with a V-

shape valley. The matured stage of the rivers is

characterized by meanders and U-shape valley.

The old stage leads to the mouth of given

katsina - ala (I;e when it empties its water to

river benue)

The reasons for the above cycles of

development of given katsina - ala are;

(i)Vertical erosion at the youthful stage

(ii)Lateral erosion and transportation at the

matured stage

(iii)Deposition of materials at the old age stage.



(i)changing of the seasons not same

temperature in different parts of the Earth

(ii)change of the length of the Day and Night

during the year

(iii)change of the position of the midday sun

and night during the year and in the different

parts of the Earth

(iv)Change of the lunar eclipse and marking of

the year.


(i)Equinox refers to a day with an equal

duration of day and night. We have two

equinoxes in a year which are:

-Spring equinox on March 20

-Autumnal equinox on September 22


(i)It could be spring or autumnal.

(ii)It is equal lengths of day and night

(iii)the days and nights are equal


Solstice is refers to a day with either the

longest day or the shortest. The two solstices

in a year are:

-Winter solstice on December 22

-Summer solstice on June 21


(i)It could be summer or winter

(ii)It is unequal length of day and night

(iii)The days are longer in summer and shorter

in winter.


(i)Because the changes in hours of daylight

and in temperature caused by

revolution and tilt lead to the yearly change of

seasons at middle latitudes. If Earth’s axis were

perpendicular to its plane of orbit, seasons

would not

occur. In addition, every place on Earth’s

surface would experience 12 hours

of daylight and 12 hours of darkness every

day. On the other hand, if Earth’s

axis were tilted more than 23.5°, each

hemisphere would experience hotter

summers and colder winters.

(ii)Because On the first day of summer, every

point on Earth within 23.5° of the

North Pole experiences 24 hours of daylight.

The boundary of this region,

at latitude 66.5° N, is the Arctic Circle. On June

21 in the Southern

Hemisphere, every point south of the Antarctic

Circle (latitude 66.5° S )

experiences 24 hours of darkness.

(iii)Because The hemisphere tilted toward the

sun receives more direct sunlight and

thus has warmer temperatures and longer days.

The hemisphere tilted

away from the sun receives indirect sunlight.

That hemisphere has cooler

temperatures and shorter days. In other words

it changes the summer to be warm and bright

and also changes it to be Winter.



Environmental conservation is the practice of

us humans saving the environment from the

loss of species, and the destruction of the

ecosystem, primarily due to pollution and

human activities.







(i)Recycling; This is a process by which the life

of resource is extended by means of recycling

it or reusing it as an input or output. This is

applicable only to on-energy resources, since

the use of a material as an energy resource

results in its useless dissipation into the

atmosphere. In other words Reprocessing of

unwanted products (e.g. newspapers, scrap

metals, glass and sewage etc.).

(ii)Waste Reduction; waste reduction, it will

automatically ensure lesser exploitation of

resources. Waste reduction can be achieved by

appropriately redesigning industrial processes,

so that there will be technological efficiency in

utilizing the resource and avoidance of waste to

the minimum. In other words Further, the waste

of one industry can be used as the raw material

of another industry.

(iii)Material Substitution: the use of a material

resource can be restricted by finding an

alternative resource. The problem in this is that

many materials have extensive uses and also

joint uses. In other words the copper sheet can

be substituted by aluminium, which at the same

time would reduce demand for soldering agents

made from and lead. Aluminium is being

extensively substituted for tin, particularly, in

the production of metal cans and containers.

(iv)Rewilding; Allowing areas to restore

themselves naturally without interference by

humans (except possible species




(i)Location; The spatial location of features are

defined by coordinates in a specific reference

system. In other words they are represented by

points, lines or polygons and geometry of the

three dimensional representation in space.

(ii)Data Quality; it refers to the credibility and

accuracy of the data or more generally how

good the data is. In other words quantitative

quality relates to measurable components such

as spatial accuracy. And the qualitative quality

consists of those non-measured components,

which usually relates to the entire data set and

not to specific objects.

(iii)Generalization; relates to the level of scale

and details associated with the object. Objects

may be aggregated from larger to lower scale,

while the opposite process is very limited. For

example, if the countries layer can be

aggregated into a states layer but opposite

cannot be accomplished without external data.

(iv)Entity versus field based data; The world

can be represented as a set of discrete entities

such as forests, rivers, roads and

buildings.This is refereed to as the Entity based

approach. In other words the field-based

approach represents the world as a continuous

function with attributes that vary in space.

Natural phenomena such as air pollution

distribution and terrain may be the best

represented using this approach.




(i)It has the ability of improving the

organizational integration. GIS would then

integrate software, hardware and also data in

order to capture, analyse, manage and so

display all forms of information being

geographically referenced.

(ii)GIS would also allow viewing, questioning,

understanding, visualizing and interpreting the

data into numbers of ways which will reveal

relationships, trends and patterns in the form of

globes, maps, charts and reports.


(i)GIS technology might be considered as

expensive software.

(ii)It as well requires enormous data inputs

amount that are needed to be practical for

some other tasks and so the more data that is

to put in.


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